Der download dieses Textes und die Spiegelung auf dem server http://paedpsych.jk.uni-linz.ac.at/ erfolgte ausschließlich zu Lehr- und Dokumentationszwecken bzw. zur Gewährleistung einer gewissen Stabilität der Informationen und berührt nicht das Copyright der jeweiligen AutorInnen! Damit soll den userInnen (StudentInnen, SchülerInnen) die Nachprüfbareit der Originalquellen ermöglicht werden, die im internet aufgrund der Dynamik des Entstehens und Vergehens von pages selten gegeben ist.
Falls sich AutorInnen durch diese Form der Dokumentation in ihrem Urheberrecht verletzt fühlen, bitte eine mail an den webmaster: email@example.com. Diese Seite gehört zu "Werner Stangls homepage der internetunterstützen Lehre": http://paedpsych.jk.uni-linz.ac.at:4711/default.html
Land, T. [a.k.a Beads] (1996, November 25). Web Extension to American Psychological Association Style (WEAPAS) (Rev. 1.4) [WWW document]. URL http://www.beadsland.com/weapas/
This document proposes an extension of Appendix 3-A
(APA, 1994, pp. 189-222), integrating the Internet
As an alternative to the approach taken here, readers may wish to consult Li & Crane's (1996a, b) "American Psychological Association Embellished Style." Li & Crane also discuss "Modern Language Association (MLA) Embellished Style." Those wishing to use citations tailored to the MLA school may also wish to consult Walker (1995) and Wainwright (1995).
The more generic guide provided by Quinion (1996) offers still another approach, while Ivey (1996) can be read as a review of the points each of these approaches speak to. There is also a summary of ideas for citing electronic texts (e-texts) by Tent (1995), and a short page discussing URLs in biomedical texts by Beckleheimer (1994), available for those who are interested. Also, a very extensive German language text on the same question is available from Bleuel (1995).
This is an evolving standard. This document should be considered under construction. Comments and suggestions are encouraged, and should be sent by electronic mail (e-mail) to the author via firstname.lastname@example.org.
An article on how to craft proper citations and avoid plagiarism:
World Wide Web documents described as "maintained" should refer to
the author with the parenthetical modifier,
(abbr Maint.), although the more generic
(i.e. Editor) may also be used.
Two special cases of author identifiers are considered under the Web Extension: e-mail addresses and nicknames/handles.
a.k.a." (for 'Also Known As') should be used to identify the nickname as such.
Because some types of online documents may be updated or modified by their authors' at any time, references to these documents should date the document version used with as much specificity as possible, with the following guidelines:
GMTHour:Minute:Second)" where GMT stands for Greenwich Mean Time, and Hour is on a 24 hour clock.
n.d./Year)" where Year is the year the document was retrieved.
Optionally, one may choose to list the date a document was downloaded or viewed online, should there be a concern that the document might expire in the forseeable future. Such dates come at the end of the reference, parenthesized in the form "(visited Year, Month Date)"
Generally the title of an online document should be immediately recognizable. There are some variations to watch out for however.
Subject:line of a newsgroup article should be treated as its title. Although the prefix "
Re:" or its cognate, a series of one or more closing angle brackets ("
>"), should be dropped. Messages lacking a subject or marked explicitly as "
No subject" or similarly tagged, should be treated as untitled works.
<TITLE>element of that page. If the client used to view this page does not automatically display the contents of the
<TITLE>element, it must be found by looking at the source file. Should the title given in header (e.g.
<H1>) elements vary substantially from the that in the
<TITLE>element, it may be listed also, following the
<TITLE>part, and separated by a semicolon.
There are many different types of documents and services available on the Internet. The nature of a given document should be given in brackets immediately following the title.
Note that postings to mailing lists (e.g. Listserv, MajorDomo) are not included here. As these documents are not publicly retrievable at a later date, and are seen only by those individuals who are subscribed to the list at the time the message was sent, they should be treated as personal communications.
The Web Extension employs URLs in the publication element of references, under the following conditions:
/") character, keeping the slash as the last character on the line, in the same way as a dash ("
-") is used to divide hyphenated words.
mailto:URL should be followed by any information required in the mail for retrieval. This information shall be prefixed by either the keyword
Message:(if it is to be included in the body of the mail) or the keyword
Subject:(if it is meant to appear on the subject header line). A space should delimiter both sides of the keyword, but no other punctuation (other than the colon in the keyword) should be used.
Unfortunately, I have not yet had the free hours to sit down and write up the extensive examples I had planned. Please be patient. In the meantime, the format of the References, below, should be a good jumping off point.
American Psychological Association (APA) (1994). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (4th ed.). Washington, D. C.: Author.
Beckleheimer, J. (1994). How do you cite URL's in a bibliography? [WWW document]. URL http://www.nrlssc.navy.mil/meta/bibliography.html
Bleuel, J. (1995, November 8). Zitieren von Internetquellen ["Citing sources on the internet"]. URL http://www.uni-mainz.de/~bleuj000/zitl.html
Dewey, R. (n.d./1996). APA Publication Manual Crib Sheet. Psych Web by Russ Dewey [WWW document]. URL http://www.gasou.edu/psychweb/tipsheet/apacrib.htm
Graham, I. (n.d./1995). Uniform Resource Locators (URLs) [WWW document]. URL http://www.utirc.utoronto.ca/HTMLdocs/NewHTML/url.html
Ivey, K.C. (1996, September 2). Citing internet sources [WWW document]. URL http://www.eei-alex.com/eye/utw/96aug.html. Also in The Editorial Eye, 19(8), 10-11. Alexandria: EEI.
Li, X., and Crane, N. (1996a, May 20) Bibliographic formats for citing electronic information [WWW document]. URL http://www.uvm.edu/~xli/reference/estyles.html
Li, X., and Crane, N. (1996b) Electronic styles: A Handbook for citing electronic information. Medford, NJ: Information Today, Inc.
Quinion, M. (1996, March 10). Citing online sources. World Wide Words: Michael Quinion on aspects of English [WWW document]. URL http://clever.net/quinion/words/citation.htm
Tent, J. (1995, February 13). Citing e-texts summary. Linguist List, 6(210) [Online serial]. URL http://lamp.cs.utas.edu.au/citation.txt
Wainwright, M. (n.d./1995). Citation style for internet sources [WWW document]. URL http://www.cl.cam.ac.uk/users/maw13/citation.html
Walker, J. R. (1995, April). Walker/ACW style sheet; MLA-style citations of electronic sources [WWW document]. URL http://www.cas.usf.edu/english/walker/mla.html
World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) (1995, May 15). About the World Wide Web [WWW document]. URL http://www.w3.org/hypertext/WWW/WWW/